Jeannette Rankin – How Dearly We Need You NOW!!

History, Politics - Comments Off on Jeannette Rankin – How Dearly We Need You NOW!! - Posted on May, 26 at 11:15 am

by Jeanmarie Simpson


The book, Jeannette Rankin: America’s Conscience, by Norma Smith, is wisely titled. It is agonizingly clear that Jeannette Rankin’s conscience is missing in today’s political and socio-economic climate – in the overtly political, certainly, but also in the personal, the private and the intimate. Our choices are forever linked to their consequences and to the ripples that affect others in myriad ways.

When Jeannette Rankin was 11 years old, she learned of and was haunted by the massacre at Wounded Knee. She was heartbroken by the slaughter and disappearance of the friendly Indians who had surrounded her Missoula, Montana home.

“As the Indians came out of their tents, the American soldiers shot them – shot the Medicine Man and anyone who came out. It was a most disgraceful act, the most outrageous thing that could happen. What Calley did at My Lai was nothing to what they did, the American army.” [1]

At 22, Jeannette Rankin had a degree in Biology from the University of Montana. She spent the next ten years tending her ailing mother, her dying father, her surviving five siblings, the family’s ranch in Grant Creek and the homestead in Missoula. She also traveled to Boston, New York, Chicago and San Francisco and observed the inequality between the masses who lived in crippling poverty and the privileged few who enjoyed economic and personal freedom. She threw herself into social work, attending the New York School of Philanthropy (now Columbia University’s School of Social Work), where her practical studies took her into personal contact with the poor – children, mothers, working fathers, orphaned youngsters by the hundreds, night police courts and women who had turned, in desperation, to prostitution.At 29, Jeannette had earned a second degree, this time in Social Work.

“I will never forget it,” Jeannette said sixty years later, her eyes darkening with pain. “There wasn’t enough money. There were too many children; only a few could be placed. Half of them returned when people changed their minds. They had suffered so much from poverty, were in such ill health, had such bad habits, that nobody wanted them. They came back and wept in my office.” [2]

By April of 1910, as Jeannette approached her 30th birthday, she avidly volunteered for women’s suffrage, scrubbing floors and taking work as a seamstress in order to pay the rent and other basic expenses. She believed that the sweeping reforms needed to make a difference in the lives of the women and children she had witnessed living in misery and squalor would only happen when women achieved the right to vote. She was one of the stars of the Washington State women’s suffrage campaign, rising to a position of recognition and prominence in the old-fashioned way, with talent, common sense and an exceptional moral compass.

“Jeannette worked for several months without pay. No service was too commonplace, difficult or disagreeable. All this was enhanced by her singularly sweet personality….”[3]

Although known for her fierce temper, Jeannette Rankin had the heart of a true diplomat and made friends easily through graciousness and her “ladylike” style.

“…Asked about the behavior of the English Suffragettes, she said it was hard to get unbiased news, implying their behavior was probably not as bad as it had been painted. But, she said, “I do not want to be understood as advocating violence. I am thankful that in this country we do not even have to think of it, for the men are so chivalrous and sensible and so imbued by the sense of justice, that all we have to to win is appeal to their common sense.” “[4]

While on the stump, Jeannette often said:

“It is beautiful and right that a woman should nurse her child through Typhoid Fever. But it is also beautiful and right that she should have a voice in regulating the milk supply from whichthe Typhoid resulted.”[5]

Jeannette worked assiduously for suffrage during the decade from 1910 to 1920. Once the vote had been won in Montana (1914), Jeannette turned for inspiration to the rest of the world, working her way as a seamstress to New Zealand on a Pacific-Orient Express ship. When she arrived, Jeannette studied the social conditions in New Zealand, where women had been voting since 1893. The country was young and progressive and Jeannette thrived in that society where there were pensions for the elderly and for mothers, worker’s compensation and labor arbitration laws, and child welfare and labor laws. Rejuvenated and inspired, she returned to the States determined to run for Congress in the 1916 election.

Jeannette maintained throughout her life, “I was never a Republican…I ran on the Republican ticket.” [6] The success of her 1916 campaign for Congress may be attributed to several things, not the least of which was her uncompromising insistence that the rhetoric remain nonpartisan.

Of the 177,000 votes cast for three candidates in Montana in 1916, 76,932 were cast for Jeannette, including thousands by women and Democrats, who were the majority in the state at the time. Besieged by companies wanting her to endorse products (for considerable amounts of money) and by reporters clamoring to interview her, Jeannette kept to herself, releasing only a simple statement.

“I am deeply conscious of the responsibility resting upon me. I earnestly hope that I may be of some substantial service, however slight, to the men and women of Montana, my native state, and of the nation.” [7]

In the early hours of Good Friday morning in April of 1917, as a flock of white doves encircled the Capitol, [8] the first woman ever elected to the major legislative body of a free country cast her first vote. President Woodrow Wilson had called for a vote on the resolution for the United States to go to war with Germany. Breaking the tradition of a simple “Yay” or “Nay,” Jeannette said, “I want to stand by my country. But I cannot vote for war. I vote NO.” [9], [10]

Controversy immediately erupted around her every move. She was drawn in the media as a weak woman who had cast a weak vote, shaming the suffrage movement. According to much of the hate mail she received, Jeannette had disgraced the people of her state by voting like a dove and not like the hawk majority she represented (The mail she received about the vote actually supported her position, sixteen to one. [11]). However, Jeannette remained steadfast in her commitment to listen to her conscience as she moved forward into her service in the House. She supported measures that assisted the “war effort,” hoping they would help carry the conflict to a speedy end.

She did, however, vote against the War Espionage Act of 1917, an act that became a vehicle for baiting aliens and suppressing dissent. When the question of the declaration of war against Austria-Hungary came up, she said:

“I still believe war is a stupid and futile way of attempting to settle international difficulties. I believe war can be avoided and will be avoided when the people, the men and women in America, as well as in Germany, have the controlling voice in their government. Today special privileged commercial interests are controlling the world… This is a vote on a mere technicality in the prosecution of a war already declared. I shall vote for this as I voted for money and men.” [12]

The War Espionage Act was the measure that sent peace activist, Eugene Debs, to prison for nearly three years, because he made a speech that “obstructed recruiting.” [13] Jeannette Rankin recognized and rejected the unconstitutionality and the profound moral and ethical injustice of the Act.

Her historic term in Congress, from April of 1917 through December of 1918, was deeply marked by the struggle of miners in Montana to win fair pay and safe conditions. When, on June 8, 1917, Anaconda Copper Company’s Speculator mine’s Granite Mountain Shaft went up in flames, taking the lives of 167 men, all hell broke loose. The surviving miners walked off the job within a few days. Soon after, union organizer, Frank Little, was dragged from his boarding house bed and lynched. Around his lifeless neck hung a sign “Others Take Notice. First and Last Warning.” [14]

The miners of Montana, furious and terrified, sent hundreds of telegrams to Jeannette’s office in Washington, begging her to travel to Montana and intervene. As their representative in Congress, it was Jeannette’s duty to demand that the Company immediately cease the intimidation and take responsibility for prioritizing war profiteering over the lives of the men who toiled long hours under ruthless conditions to extract the metal from the earth.

In 1916, twenty percent of the world’s copper was coming out of the Anaconda mine in Butte. From Anaconda’s perspective, the high wartime price of copper, used in the manufacture of weapons, meant that a labor strike would deeply imperil profits. When Jeannette arrived in Butte on August 14, a gathering of 5,000 supporters cheered for her at the train station. The police quickly pushed her into a cab (“abducted me!” she said later. [15]) not allowing her to address the crowd. She would speak to the workers, however, and did so on August 18, to a multitude of some 10,000 at Columbia Gardens.

“It is unpatriotic for labor to strike without just cause, especially in time of war. But it is equally unpatriotic for capital to take advantage of men whose patriotism causes them to continue to work under conditions which mean the daily, unnecessary risk of lives… I pledge you my word that I shall always do my utmost to bring about better conditions.” [16]

Do her utmost Jeannette did, throughout her congressional term, in spite of the fact that she knew the company controlled many of the news outlets in Montana and would work voraciously to ensure that she never returned to Congress.

Louis Levine, a Montana economics professor, effectively described the press campaign against Jeannette in a November 2, 1918 article in the The Nation:

“Miss Rankin voted against the declaration of war. That is used effectively against her. But the real cause of bitter opposition to her on the part of those whose views are voiced by the Butte Miner, the Anaconda Standard, the Helena Independent and similar newspapers is her economic radicalism. Nominally a Republican, Miss Rankin has championed the cause of the workers of Montana and attacked the mining companies of the State…. the Butte Miner falsely brands her as a “rabid Socialist of the IWW [Industrial Workers of the World] type.” ” [17]

Throughout her term in office, Jeannette diligently sat on the House Committee for Women’s Suffrage, gracefully rejecting the role of Chair, insisting that a member of the Democrat majority hold that position. John Raker (D-California) served as Chairman as the proposed 19th Amendment, guaranteeing women the right to vote, was discussed time and again, finally passing in the problematic 66th Senate in June of 1919, after she had left office.

Following her term, Jeannette Rankin embarked on her long journey of peace activism that included the pursuit of social justice for workers, women, children and immigrants.

In the spring of 1919, Jeannette traveled with Jane Addams, later a Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1931), to Zurich for the Second International Congress of Women for Permanent Peace (renamed the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom – WILPF). It took no crystalball for the women in Zurich to recognize that the Treaty of Versailles created the conditions for, among other terrible things, a future war.

“This International Congress of Women expresses its deep regret that the terms of peace proposed at Versailles should so seriously violate the principles upon which alone a just and lasting peace can be secured, and which the democracies of the world had come to accept.”

“By guaranteeing the fruits of the secret treaties to the conquerors, the terms of peace tacitly sanction secret diplomacy, deny the principles of self-determination, recognize the right of the victors to the spoils of war, and create all over Europe discords and animosities, which can only lead to future wars.”

“By the demand for the disarmament of one set of belligerents only, the principle of justice is violated and the rule of force is continued.”

“By the financial and economic proposals, a hundred million people of this generation in the heart of Europe are condemned to poverty, disease and despair, which must result in the spread of hatred and anarchy within each nation.”

“With a deep sense of responsibility this Congress strongly urges the Allied and Associated Governments to accept such amendments of the Terms as shall bring the Peace into harmony with those principles first enumerated by President Wilson upon the faithful carrying out of which the honour of the Allied peoples depends.” [18]

Back at home,

“The war unleashed an unprecedented wave of intolerance, repression and violence. Free speech and due process were swept aside as government officials and private citizens led a national crusade to enforce patriotism and political conformity.” [19]

In 1920, along with Roger Baldwin, Crystal Eastman, Albert DeSilver and many others, Jeannette Rankin was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). American citizens sat in jail for holding anti-war views. U.S. Attorney General Palmer ordered police squads to drag from their homes thousands of immigrants suspected of being “communists.” Racial segregation was legal and violence against blacks occurred every day. Gender discrimination was deeply rooted, in spite of the ratification of the 19th Amendment on August 20. Constitutional rights for homosexuals, the poor, prisoners, mental patients, and other special groups were unimaginable. Additionally, the Supreme Court had yet to uphold a single free speech claim under the First Amendment. The ACLU was the first organization of its kind, and immediately began the work of transforming the principles included in the Bill of Rights into realities. In its first year, the ACLU worked at ending the deportation of immigrants for their radical beliefs, opposing assaults on the rights of unions to hold meetings and organize, and securing release for hundreds sentenced to prison for expression of antiwar sentiments during the war. [20]

Jeannette’s agenda, as she worked for protective legislation, was almost as hectic as had been her traveling schedule while working for suffrage. She rarely slept in the same bed two nights in a row, moving from community to community. She spoke to social organizations, unions, schools, churches and universities. She also lobbied members of Congress to support protective measures, including the Sheppard-Towner Act, providing the first ever social welfare funds for maternal and child health. [21]

In 1924, Jeannette bought land in rural Georgia and lived simply, off the grid, protesting the private utilities that gouged the consumer and underpaid the workers. She labored continuously for peace, for justice, for the rights of everyone to live plain lives unencumbered by the crippling social and economic burdens war culture heaps upon a society. As a field organizer for WILPF, Jeannette supported and promoted Salmon O. Levinson’s “outlawry of war” plan, proposing that war be outlawed by making it a crime and that a World Court be established to deal with such crimes. Jeannette moved always in the direction of her ideals, persistently working to realize in personal practice her theories of the power of non-violent negotiation and self-determination. [22]

When Franklin Delano Roosevelt took the oath of office for his first term on March 4, 1933, Jeannette and other compassionate, thinking people including Jane Addams and her ACLU colleagues, felt the cold winds of fascism blowing across the seas from Europe, where Adolph Hitler had been sworn in as Chancellor of Germany on January 30 of the same year. On September 10, in Washington D.C., Jeannette et al met and addressed President Roosevelt, urging him to revise American immigration laws to admit religious and political refugees, particularly to offer asylum to victims of the Nazi regime in Germany. [23]

Urging the nation to become “educated to the ideals of peace” and, at the same time, urging Congress to expand the Navy, Roosevelt ignored the pleas of Jeannette and her peers. Immigration during Roosevelt’s tenure as president dipped, rather than increased, in spite of the number of profoundly endangered refugees, especially from Nazi occupied Europe. [24]

Alarmed by the increasing militarism in Germany in the 1930’s, Roosevelt’s enthusiasm for amplified Naval development and the insistent aggressiveness of nations including Italy, Russia and Japan, American peace societies organized emergency campaigns throughout the decade. [25]

Jeannette was 60 years old in 1940. She was energetic, attractive and driven as ever. Running for Congress again, this time on a peace platform, she continued her grueling schedule, lecturing on college campuses, speaking at luncheons, teas, labor meetings, business meetings, churches, women’s clubs, high schools and on radio. Understanding that a speaker must use the language of the listener, she spoke of “defense” and “enemies” to crowds throughout Montana, believing that “You take people as far as they will go, not as far as you would like them to go.” [26]

“The first necessity in national defense is to have loyal citizens…. education, health and economic security must be available…. Facilities for communication and transportation and modern industries to develop our resources are needed to defend our Nation against all enemies, including such enemies as ignorance, disease, and poverty.”

“We also need a highly modernized, mechanized military defense…. The most tragic problem is unemployment…. [and] an increasing number of old people fearful of their future…. No adjustment of our economic institutions will be satisfactory unless based on the astonishing fact that an abundance can be made available…. There are people in the United States who, year in and year out, never taste wheat flour products, children everywhere who would be happier with better woolen clothes, and yet Montana farmers are not producing to their full capacity…. Wasting is the crime, not spending…. By voting for me… you can express your opposition to sending your son to foreign lands to fight in a foreign war, and by voting for me you will also express your determination to prepare to the absolute limit to defend this country.” [27]

On election day, Jeannette garnered more than 9,000 votes over that of her opponent. Insisting that no one would pay special attention to her, since six women now sat in the House and two in the Senate, she faced her new term resolved to convince more representatives in Congress to join her in her anti-military, humanitarian agenda. [28]

Tension was high in 1941 as Europe was at war and Roosevelt ordered the American navy to “shoot on sight” in American waters. Russia was offered $1 billion in Lend-Lease munitions/military information (without Congressional authorization). [29] Jeannette said later, “Everything Roosevelt did was a step toward war.” [30]

“On Sunday, Pearl Harbor was attacked; I had an engagement to speak in Detroit on Monday afternoon. I couldn’t get hold of anyone at the Capitol, to find out what the program was going to be. I felt the only thing I could do was to start going to Detroit because it wasn’t possible then to get there in such a short time. I took the train Sunday night, and I took a radio with me, and from the conversation on the radios after the train got started, I knew that the vote was coming the next day. I got off at Pittsburgh and went back. I was traveling all night, and when I got there and they said it was coming at 12 o’clock, I got into my car, left the office, and left everything, and no one knew where I was. No one could get after me; no one could bring any pressure on me, because I knew what I was going to do. It was very simple, at last.”

“The thing hasn’t ever been brought up since – at the time it was mentioned – at the First World War vote, James Mann came to me afterwards and said, “If I had known you were going to vote against it, I might have had the courage.” I decided then, that never would I wait to prepare a speech, that I’d speak out any time, and so when they read the resolution, I asked to have it referred to committee.”

“According to the rules of Congress, a resolution, once introduced, has to be referred to a committee if anyone asks for it to be referred to a committee. I hoped that by voting No and refusing unanimity to the vote, and by asking that it be referred to a committee, I could remove the war vote from the passion of the moment and have it at least considered so both sides of the issues could be brought out. I asked, and they wouldn’t let me talk. They proved that we haven’t free speech. The only free speech we have is the filibuster in the Senate, and that’s about to be taken away. So, we have no free speech. You can’t speak out with an audience in this country. That was the most important vote that we’ve ever taken. I think the First World War was at that time the most important. But to repeat the same mistake was a terrible mistake.” [31]

Contemporary writers of American history insist that Jeannette Rankin voted against US entry into the Second World War because she was a pacifist. Even Walter Cronkite, in a post-9/11 report on National Public Radio, incorrectly accused her of being “paralyzed by principle.” [32]

On December 8, 1941, Jeannette Rankin asked that the War Resolution be sent to committee. Hers was a lawful request made by a duly elected member of the House of Representatives. She had many concerns about the resolution that she believed should have been addressed before the vote was taken. The speaker, Sam Rayburn, broke the law by choosing not to recognize her on the floor that day. She voted appropriately. A shamefully dishonest history paints her as nothing but a wide-eyed pacifist. Jeannette Rankin was a great, pragmatic, clear-headed stateswoman whose role in American history has been jaded by jingoist reductionism.

Had her voice been heard, the entire trajectory of American history and the harsh socio-economic realities today may have been softened by her compassionate common sense.

Since Wounded Knee, more than 260 million civilians have been massacred worldwide. That is more than six times the number of persons who died in combat in all the foreign and internal wars of the 20th century. [33]

Today, the United States has the most dismal social statistics of any “developed” nation, while half of our tax dollars still fund the military, with only a tiny percentage paying for active military and veteran’s benefits. The lion’s share of the military budget is allocated to the Pentagon, where hundreds of billions of dollars are spent building stealth bombers that aren’t used and defense shields that don’t work. [34]

Meanwhile, 15 million American children live in poverty. Poor funding and political tug-of-wars between ideologue parents, educators and community activists have broken our schools.In the United States of America, there are more than 800,000 homeless persons today, the average age of whom is nine. Our elders are having increasingly difficult times living on fixed incomes, including Social Security, and many must choose between paying their utility bills and paying for their prescription medications. 47 million Americans, including 9 million children, do not have access to regular health care. Medical bills bankrupt nearly a million Americans each year. [35]

It must have been cold comfort to Jeannette, in the twilight of her life during the Vietnam War era, when millions of Americans finally agreed with her tenets of non-violent resistance. However, she was spotted more than once wearing love beads and dancing with the young activists at peace gatherings in the San Francisco Bay Area where the flower children were embracing ideals of peace and love and communing with nature – the antithesis of militarism. [36]

Ironically, on June 11, 1970, a 90th birthday celebration was organized for Jeannette and held at the Rayburn House Office building in Washington D.C. Having broken her hip three months earlier, a generally robust Jeannette had to attend in a wheel chair. But she wore a dazzling gold silk dress that she had sewn on one of her seven trips to her beloved India, where she had studied Gandhi’s works and legacy for the last 30 years of her life.

Jeannette Rankin was a magnificent human being who never rested on her laurels, nor felt comfortable with past achievements. As Gandhi had done, she viewed her life as a work of art and continued gracefully to sculpt it until the day she died, May 18, 1973.

With few exceptions, such as Ohio’s Congressman Dennis Kucinich, Independent Congressional Candidate Cindy Sheehan, Green Party Presidential Candidate Cynthia McKinney and Independent Presidential Candidate Ralph Nader, America’s 21st Century political landscape is devoid of voices the likes of Jeannette Rankin’s.

To paraphrase Jeannette herself, when she described Gandhi and the potency of his message:

She was the greatest philosopher of our time. If her ideas don’t take hold, we’re lost.

Jeannette Rankin Timeline

1880 Born on June 11, in Missoula Montana, the eldest of seven children.

1902 Graduates from the University of Montana with a degree in Biology.

1904 Father John Rankin dies of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

1908 Leaves Montana to study at the New York School of Philanthropy.

1909-1914 Works for Suffrage in Washington, California, Ohio and Montana.

1914 Montana women win the right to vote.

1916 Runs successfully for a seat in the U.S. Congress and becomes the first woman ever to be elected.

1917 Is one of 56 members who votes against declaring war on Germany (WWI).

1918 Runs unsuccessfully for the US Senate.

1919-1939 Moves to Georgia and works as a lobbyist for Peace. Founded Georgia Peace Society.

1940 Returns to Montana to run successfully for Congress on an anti-war platform.

1941 Is the only member of Congress to vote against declaration of war against Japan. This ends her political career but not her activism.

1946 Drawn to the work of Mohandas K. Gandhi, she travels to India.

1948-1971 Gandhi is assassinated. Rankin travels the world and to India six more times.

1968 Marches with 5,000 women in Washington D.C. to protest the Vietnam War under the banner “The Jeannette Rankin Peace Parade.” She was 88 years old.

1970 Honored on her 90th birthday in Washington D.C. and given a standing ovation.

1973 Dies on May 18, in Carmel, California.

1985 A bronze statue of Rankin is placed in the U.S. Capitol.


[1] Suffragists Oral History Project, Jeannette Rankin: Activist for World Peace, Women’s Rights, and Democratic Government (1974). Section 191.

[2] Jeannette Rankin, America’s Conscience, Norma Smith (2002) Montana Historical Society Press p. 55.

[3] Ibid, p. 64.

[4] Ibid, pp. 70-71.

[5] Flight of the Dove, Kevin S. Giles (1980) The Touchstone Press, p. 60.

[6] Suffragists Oral History Project, Jeannette Rankin: Activist for World Peace, Women’s Rights, and Democratic Government (1974). Section 60.

[7] Jeannette Rankin, America’s Conscience, Norma Smith (2002) Montana Historical Society Press. p. 104.

[8] Flight of the Dove, Kevin S. Giles (1980) The Touchstone Press, p. 89.

[9] Jeannette Rankin, America’s Conscience, Norma Smith (2002) Montana Historical Society Press p. 112.

[10] Flight of the Dove, Kevin S. Giles 1980) The Touchstone Press, p. 94.

[11] Jeannette Rankin, America’s Conscience, Norma Smith (2002) Montana Historical Society Press p. 114.

[12] Ibid, p. 114.

[13] Don’t Know Much About History, Kenneth C. Davis (2004). Revised ed., New York: Perennial, p. 314.

[14] Jeannette Rankin, America’s Conscience, Norma Smith (2002). Montana Historical Society Press p. 129.

[15] Ibid, p. 131.

[16] Ibid, pp. 131-132.

[17] Ibid, p. 137.

[18] Resolutions of the Zürich Congress, 1919. WILPF International Archives, University of Colorado.

[19] In Defense of American Liberties, A History of the ACLU. 2nd ed., Samuel Walker (1999). Southern Illinois University Press, p. 12

[20] Ibid, pp. 11-15

[21] Jeannette Rankin, America’s Conscience, Norma Smith (2002) Montana Historical Society Press pp. 143-148.

[22] Ibid, pp. 157-160.

[23] Roosevelt Asked to Aid Refugees, Civil Liberties Union Urges Broader Asylum for Nazi Victims and Others. Revision of Hoover Executive Order Suggested by 36 Signers of Memorial (Sept. 11, 1933). The New York Times.

[24] Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy 1932-1945, Robert Dallek (1979). Oxford University Press, pp. 446-448.

[25] Jeannette Rankin, America’s Conscience, Norma Smith (2002). Montana Historical Society Press pp. 168.

[26] Suffragists Oral History Project, Jeannette Rankin: Activist for World Peace, Women’s Rights, and Democratic Government (1974). Section 63.

[27] Jeannette Rankin, America’s Conscience, Norma Smith (2002). Montana Historical Society Press pp. 175-176.

[28] Ibid, p. 178.

[29] Ibid, pp. 182-183.

[30] Suffragists Oral History Project, Jeannette Rankin: Activist for World Peace, Women’s Rights, and Democratic Government (1974). Section 9.

[31] Ibid, Section 10.

[32] The Lone War Dissenter, Walter Cronkite, All Things Considered, December 7, 2001. National Public Radio.

[33] Statistics Of Democide R.J. Rummel, (1997). Second ed., Charlottesville, Virginia: Center for National Security Law, School of Law, University of Virginia.

[34] Office of the Secretary of Defense – Budget Materials Department of Defense, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller). Directorate for Program and Financial Control (2007)

[35] MarketWatch: Illness And Injury As Contributors To Bankruptcy, David U. Himmelstein, Elizabeth Warren, Deborah Thorne, and Steffie Woolhandler (2005). Harvard Law School, Harvard Medical School.

[36] Flight of the Dove, Kevin S. Giles (1980). The Touchstone Press, p. 226.

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